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Geoscientific Instrumentation, Methods and Data Systems An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union

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Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 163-179, 2016
https://doi.org/10.5194/gi-5-163-2016
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
30 May 2016
Sodankylä manual snow survey program
Leena Leppänen1, Anna Kontu1, Henna-Reetta Hannula1, Heidi Sjöblom2, and Jouni Pulliainen1 1Finnish Meteorological Institute, Arctic Research, Sodankylä, Finland
2Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki, Finland
Abstract. The manual snow survey program of the Arctic Research Centre of the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI-ARC) consists of numerous observations of natural seasonal taiga snowpack in Sodankylä, northern Finland. The easily accessible measurement areas represent the typical forest and soil types in the boreal forest zone. Systematic snow measurements began in 1909 with snow depth (HS) and snow water equivalent (SWE). In 2006 the manual snow survey program expanded to cover snow macro- and microstructure from regular snow pits at several sites using both traditional and novel measurement techniques. Present-day snow pit measurements include observations of HS, SWE, temperature, density, stratigraphy, grain size, specific surface area (SSA) and liquid water content (LWC). Regular snow pit measurements are performed weekly during the snow season. Extensive time series of manual snow measurements are important for the monitoring of temporal and spatial changes in seasonal snowpack. This snow survey program is an excellent base for the future research of snow properties.

Citation: Leppänen, L., Kontu, A., Hannula, H.-R., Sjöblom, H., and Pulliainen, J.: Sodankylä manual snow survey program, Geosci. Instrum. Method. Data Syst., 5, 163-179, https://doi.org/10.5194/gi-5-163-2016, 2016.
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Short summary
The manual snow survey program of Finnish Meteorological Institute consists of numerous observations of natural seasonal snowpack in Sodankylä, in northern Finland. Systematic snow measurements began in 1911 with snow depth and snow water equivalent. In 2006 the manual snow survey program expanded to cover snow macro- and microstructure from snow pits. Extensive time series of manual snow measurements are important for the monitoring of temporal and spatial changes in seasonal snowpack.
The manual snow survey program of Finnish Meteorological Institute consists of numerous...
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